Semblances

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There was no bitterness between the friends, no semblance of an estrangement of any sort. That House is no representative of the people at all, even in " semblance " or "in form.

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Plenty of you landed on Dictionary. So what did we learn? Let's review this week in words! Words related to semblance pretense , veneer , bearing , figure , similarity , feel , image , aspect , facade , air , simulacrum , resemblance , mood , mien , show , affinity , analogy , similitude , form , showing. By Nell Zink. By Andrea Gabor. By Patrick Symmes. Many features on this website require JavaScript. You can enable JavaScript via your browser preference settings. Many features on this website require Cookies.

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Semblance | Definition of Semblance by Merriam-Webster

Sign in Need help? November 14, [ Protests ] [ Hearings ] [ Cold Weather ]. This article is available in PDF and Microfiche formats only. Download Pdf. At the neuronal level: Electrophysiological studies can be carried out to examine the effect of functional LINKs at the neuronal level. A study examining cue-associated learning of reward at the thalamo—amygdalar synapses in the lateral amygdala Tye et al.

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The same work also showed learning-induced firing of additional neurons in the lateral amygdale. Since binding can be viewed as an associative learning, the above explanations can be further explored to understand the nature of the functional LINKs used in building the framework. At the systems level: Examination of the effect of functional LINKs on neuronal oscillation can be studied by testing whether blocking the functional LINKs can affect the retrieval of the bound sensations. At the behavioral level: If different behavioral effects can be explained based on the role of functional LINKs, then their relationship with consciousness can be examined.

For example if functional LINKs can be used to explain some of the features of schizophrenia, then the relationship between consciousness and schizophrenia can be studied. At the epistemological level: It is possible to examine the feasibility of the functional LINKs as a mechanism to explain different brain functions. This will allow us to examine the presence of any cross-correlation between these brain functions and consciousness.

From similar approaches carried out to study the role of the functional LINKs in memory Vadakkan, , it was observed that oxygen, glucose, dopamine, and amphetamine likely augment the formation of the functional LINKs; whereas activation of glycine receptors and gamma amino-butyric acid GABA -activated chloride channels, electroconvulsive stimulation and anesthetic agents likely block the functional LINKs. The similarities of the effect of these agents on memory and consciousness can be explored further to understand the nature of the functional LINKs. C-semblance is viewed as the multi-dimensional virtual sensation of a sensory stimulus resulting from background sensory stimuli and oscillatory neuronal activities taking place at various levels during wake-state.

During these events, the dendritic trees of many neurons will be short of sufficient EPSPs to induce action potentials at their axonal hillocks. In these neurons that are activated by the background sensory stimuli and neuronal oscillations, the summated EPSPs reaching at sub-threshold levels provide important physiological functions. At this stage where background neuronal activities that continue to evoke C-semblance keeping the animal conscious, a new cue stimulus reaching the nervous system induces additional functional LINKs that add minor increments in EPSPs and can trigger an action potential in the above-mentioned neurons that belong to the second sensation that are otherwise activated at sub-threshold levels.

Activation of a set of neurons that belong to one sensation from an item will provide network semblance for retrieval of sensory features from other sensations. This enables the nervous system to utilize the property of binding for its functions. Thus, maintenance of C-semblance aids in retrieval of additional sensory features of an item when only one sensation from the item reaches the nervous system. The same mechanism can explain memory retrieval after learning. The present work has synthesized a feasible framework using information from various fields of brain sciences.

This framework is then examined for the feasibility to support most of the functional requirements for maintaining a conscious state during which other brain functions can be carried out. In summary, the net semblance of activity from the sensory receptors occurring through the transient functional LINKs between the postsynapses by the background sensory receptor activations and neuronal oscillations is explained as the basis of consciousness.

The factors that affect the functional LINKs should change the conformation of C-semblance and lead to different levels of consciousness modifying other brain functions that are dependent on C-semblance. There are difficult questions that need to be answered. For example, can the proposed framework explain basic language comprehension? Even though, a feasible explanation may be given as follows, is it sufficient?

From them, the right one can be chosen, once we provide the nervous system with the context. Unique conscious experiences in very complex circumstances are often difficult to explain. However, the present framework provides innumerable combinatorial and permutation possibilities that can create a large number of complex multi-dimensional semblances from nearly 10 15 synapses that are located in multiple neuronal orders. It is possible that retrieval of semblances by certain sensations can cause collapse of the multi-dimensional conformation of C-semblance, similar to discontinuity in the graphs of certain calculus functions leading to loss of consciousness.

The present framework has applied new assumptions that binding introduces reversible changes at the level of synapses and during retrieval a virtual sense of the bound sensations is created. The present work explains consciousness using a framework derived from synaptic plasticity changes. Even though the present work has shown several supportive evidences, empirical verification of the functional LINKs needs to be undertaken. It may be possible to carry out experimental approaches to manipulate the functional LINKs in order to study their effects on consciousness. In addition, it may also become possible to translate the framework for experiments in physical systems.

The present framework raises many challenging questions.

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How many orders of neurons are required for the conscious state? Can machines have consciousness? Is it wrong to assume that a machine that suitably simulates human brain has consciousness Minsky, ? Computational work may help to estimate the threshold numbers of neuronal orders that can produce the final effective semblance for consciousness.

Since consciousness is a property of the internal state of the nervous system, devising methods to express it using proper read-outs may allow us to understand its nature. The present framework should be treated as unproven until it is verified against further supporting evidence.

The author declares that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. I acknowledge the support from the Neurosearch Center in Toronto, Canada. I thank the reviewers for their questioning minds and insight during various stages of the review process.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Psychol v. Front Psychol. Published online Oct Kunjumon I. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

This article was submitted to Frontiers in Consciousness Research, a specialty of Frontiers in Psychology. Received Jul 26; Accepted Nov This is an open-access article subject to an exclusive license agreement between the authors and the Frontiers Research Foundation, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original authors and source are credited.

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This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Keywords: consciousness, qualia, binding, memory, semblance hypothesis, functional LINKs. Introduction Consciousness is described as a biological and therefore, physical feature of certain higher-level nervous systems of humans and a large number of different types of animals Searle, The Context Studies from various fields of brain sciences have clearly shown that some form of memory is directly associated with consciousness. Derivation of the Framework The derivation is carried out in two steps. Step 1: binding and semblance formation The nervous system is endowed with the property of making associations among different sensory inputs.

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Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Step 2: derivation of the framework for consciousness Continuous formation of semblances is required for the formation of uninterrupted functional semblance for consciousness. The main inputs that provide a continuum of neuronal activities in the nervous system include: 1. Dimensions of C-semblance The net C-semblance is formed from the integration of all the synaptic and network semblances occurring at different orders of neurons.

Figure 5. Dynamics of the formation of C-semblance The contribution of synaptic and network semblances from different regions of the brain that contribute to the C-semblance may vary.


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Determinants of C-semblance Species specificity Every individual within a species is different in the specific number of neurons and fine details of connectivity patterns within its nervous system. Interactions of the sensory systems Injuries of the sensory pathways Guberman and Stuss, ; Steinke et al. C-semblance and its relation to other semblances The primary C-semblance is viewed as resulting from the semblances formed from background neuronal activity. Subjective qualities of C-semblance According to philosophical idealism, things that we perceive around us are the subjective creation of our minds and we have no possibility of knowing what the real world is like Kant, Qualia It is expected that a framework for consciousness should be able to support different functional features of qualia Dennett, ; Ramachandran and Hirstein, ; Ramachandran and Hubbard, Levels of conscious and unconscious states Awareness, attention, and the ability to respond to sensory stimuli are used to estimate the level of consciousness.

Supporting evidence Any account of the neurobiological processes contributing to conscious perception has to be compatible with various known relationships between different brain functions.