The Rise of Middle-Class Culture in Nineteenth-Century Spain
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The refined portraits of women discussed in Chapter 1, technically speaking unchallenged in the s and 80s, appeared alongside photographs in the s and s where they contrasted sharply with the newer photo images. At that point they became associated either with the past or with high art and stood out for their highly posed and idealistic, as opposed to realistic, content, as well as for their power to evoke sensuous reactions in magazine viewers.
Because the sensuous appeal of the exotic women was heightened by their juxtaposition with the precious objects that adorned their bodies, these images occupy a special position in the fetishization of the female portrait that reached its high-water point at the end of the century, just as Spain was experiencing one of its most difficult political and military crises. Documenting the events of that difficult period would have been the work of the army of skilled illustrators and engravers, before the use of field photography became the norm in the illustrated press. The task of tracing how and when periodicals began to use photography to reproduce art and document political events, daily activities of the citizenry, or battles and scenes from abroad is a complicated task.
The processes employed to get ink to paper were in constant flux, with new techniques rapidly replacing the old, and with traditional engraving techniques combined with newer photographic techniques in ways that are in many instances difficult to gauge and that publishers rarely documented with clarity. Nevertheless, assessing the uses of technology is key to understanding the potential of the magazine industry in arriving at the desired level of mass production.
Chapter 1 looks at both the various processes that led to the replacement of manually produced, mechanically printed engravings by images that were photographed and reproduced photomechanically, and the effects that resulted from this substitution. What is evident is that the processes employed not only impacted the pictorial content and level of refinement of whatever process was utilized; they also influenced the choice of subject and the content of the text that accompanied the images.
America, Australia and Britain
This juxtaposition also demonstrates, to the extent possible, what made process printing using photomechanical reproduction win out in the race with xylography and other manual printing processes to supply the increasingly insatiable thirst for visual culture that marked the end of the century. It is tempting to conclude that technological advancements that made the mass production of images and text together possible led to the leveling of culture, resulting in a democratization of the press with increased appeal to the masses.
While this is an important factor in the popularization of the medium-format magazine, the idea of an organ of mass communication in Spain in the late nineteenth century remains a problematic concept. Even if we accept for a moment the notion of calling a magazine like Blanco y Negro a mass-circulating publication, as some have described it, it is important to discuss the interrelation between the mode of production of the magazine and its content, an issue I look at more closely in Chapter 3.
A combination of factors ensured that Blanco y Negro was an instant success when it appeared in Apparently urban readers were receptive to the kind of news doled out in small batches, often with a heavy dose of humor and numerous accompanying pictorial images, that functioned as a kind of shorthand messaging system. Paul Aubert even credits the magazine for instilling in consumers the expectation of graphic coverage as the best way to establish the historical veracity of news items. For example, field reportage, which was increasingly accompanied by photographs shot on site, largely documented the important affairs of white European men who were most heavily featured in early photographic journalism.
This focus was also in keeping with the conventions of high-end magazines that doted on engraved portraits of illustrious men. On the other hand many photographs and sketches illustrated ethnic or national differences from the European norm. As the century drew to a close, photography not only fueled the demand for visual validation of the written word in the reporting of world events, descriptions of other nations and their peoples, and scientific and technological progress; it also put into perspective the vast differences in the mores and conduct of other nations.
For example, the cartoons that proliferated in the mainstream press leading up to and during the War of provided a way for the upper and middle classes to represent themselves and their moral hierarchy in a way that distinguished them from the impoverished ideals of other nations. The final chapter of this book looks at the way that popular magazines like Blanco y Negro, as well as more specialized periodicals like the humorist-anarchist magazine La Campana de Gracia and others, developed a stereotypical library of images to lend support to or impugn national interests and to constitute the image of a mythical Spaniard as the norm against which other peoples were to be measured.
Comparing the warmongering techniques of the s in Spain with those that proliferated in the United States press during the same period underscores the particularities of Spanish cartooning, but also the way in which the political cartoon came to function as a handy propaganda tool for future conflicts and political campaigns. Most of the reasons for the success of the illustrated weekly magazine examined in the chapters of this book concern image content and production, but what also ushered in what we can properly call a mass culture in which magazines played a definitive role was the transformation in the relationship between the products that were being manufactured, distributed, and sold to consumers and the new methods for constituting ready consumers of those products in the form of advertising.
Studying the formation of mass culture in the United States, Richard Ohmann suggests that significant changes in manufacturing, distribution, and advertisement were what propelled the magazine into such a prominent social force in the nineteenth century. The concluding section of Hold That Pose looks briefly at the advertising in what became the most popular magazine of the s, Blanco y Negro, to see whether a similar causal relationship was forming between popular weekly magazines and new advertising techniques that reflected a transformation in manufacturing and business practices.
Spain was, after all, just emerging as a modern industrial nation as the century ended, while America could already be called without exaggeration a consumer capitalist state. An examination of the content of magazine advertisements between and reveals that Spain had interesting parallels to and departures from the American and European models of advertising.
Publicity was still in a very primitive stage in the magazine, compared with, for example, the newspaper or poster.
Magazine advertising nevertheless solidifies the overall thesis of this book——that illustrated magazines were about selling, not just ideas, social norms, and images, but the magazine itself as an indispensable consumer product for an authentically modern world. Modern and Contemporary.
Changes in American Society
Subscribe to our mailing list and be notified about new titles, journals and catalogs. It examines both the ideological impact and the technological transformation of image production in Spanish magazines during the Restoration. By , once subscription prices fell and magazines began to apply modern photojournalistic techniques, the middle classes became inured to illustrated magazines.
Advancements in photomechanical reproduction allowed periodicals to focus more extensively on the vicissitudes and pleasures of everyday life in urban Spain along with world events in increasingly remote locales.
Hold That Pose explores this period of transition through an analysis of the images that spoke for and to the burgeoning numbers of subscribers who purchased the most popular weeklies of the period. Huerta and secano also refer to irrigated and unirrigated lands in any part of the region, and a single propietario may own both huerta and secano in one plot.
The medium farms were generally between 11—99 hectares, using Malefakis's categorization of a minifundio being a farm of less than 10 hectares, and a latifundio being a farm of more than hectares; Simpson does note that even within these two categories there was tremendous variation. Tomo III. Informacion oral y escrita practicada en virtud de la Real Orden de 5 de diciembre de Page citations to the reprint edition.
A reexamination of the traditional interpretations of European modernization as a whole is also crucial, as discussed by Eley in Forging Democracy , 33— Simpson, Spanish Agriculture , 3—4. Griffin , R. Barciela , et al.
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In-text, I will use the Valenciano names of each town, unless otherwise indicated by original source material. The region has been continuously inhabited for at least twelve thousand years, and throughout the last three millennia has been part of an important Mediterranean trading network, and was home to small Phoenician and Greek colonial outposts, as well as substantial Romanization; the city itself was Roman in origin.
Changes in American Society
This was also the beginning of extensive irrigation networks within the region, some of which remained in use through the twentieth century. Fear , A. Casal , L. Abad , Keay , S. The CRS reports of the s were commissioned by royal decree in , and the next ten years produced some of the most important data on living and working conditions, gender relationships, and cultural perceptions of Spain's working classes.
Reformas Sociales. Valencia, Burguera's work focuses on the strike, but she references the strike on p. Gallego , Francesc A.
Martin, The Agony of Modernization , Antonio Vicent, Socialismo y anarquismo  Madrid: Narcea, , 40— Garrido Herrero, Los trabajadores de las derechas , — Arxiu Municipal de Vila-real, Signatura 5, Interestingly, despite a reporter being present in the meettings on the sixteenth, no in-depth discussion of the meeting's discussions appeared in the Heraldo.
Long live Burriana! Long live Villarreal! Long live the long-suffering and honrable Plana! It is also an indication of the uncertain influence of organized socialist or anarchist activity in the countryside. Viaje del Sr.
Adriana Bergero - Spanish & Portuguese Department - UCLA
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